Fresnel Lenses Theory

Fresnel Lenses Theory and Its Usage Today


The demand for energy is increasing exponentially over the world, while Fossil fuel reserves begin to deplete. To sustain development, the supply of energy continuously required. Finding new regenerative energy sources, such as biomass, geothermal energy, or solar energy, etc. and cannot deplete with time. Amongst all, solar energy is essential and fulfills the future needs of energy. Several developed technologies solar energy for domestic use like Fresnel lenses. Fresnel Lenses were actually for concentrating solar energy. The Fresnel lenses theory is not new, and its popularity is growing due to an increase in its applications and improvements in material and manufacturing techniques.

The invention of Fresnel Lenses

Fresnel lenses offer high optical efficiency with low cost and weight and us as solar concentrators. From the 1960s, the Fresnel lens concentrators are useful in solar energy. Due to this feature, the development of Fresnel lenses in commercial solar energy is still widespread and ongoing. That’s why its use is expanding rapidly, and found in highly sophisticated optical. Fresnel lenses solved many severe optical problems and introduced new designs consideration. Although the Fresnel lenses theory is not new, their popularity is growing due to improvements in material and manufacturing techniques.

Working Principle of Fresnel Lenses

The principle behind the Fresnel lenses’ concept is that the direction of propagated light, unless scattered, cannot change in the medium. Instead, the rays of light deviate at the surface of the medium. The material in the center of lenses only increases the weight and volume of the system. For creating annual rings of the curved profile, grooves are cut into the glass pieces, and on releasing becomes conventional. Due to this function, when conventional optical lenses compared to Fresnel lenses, Fresnel lenses offer better-focusing performance. Furthermore, higher groove density allows the more excellent image quality, while lower density provides better efficiency. 

frensel lens

Fresnel Lenses Making

Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon proposed the idea of Fresnel lenses in 1748. The approach was later adopted by Augustine-Jeans in 1827 and used in 1823 for the first time. Where the refraction occurs, it maintained the curved surface. Fresnel lenses made up of several concentric rings etched into the plastic. The thin and light-weighted construction of lenses is available in different sizes. Because of their ability to gather excellent light, there are useful in various applications. Fresnel lenses consist of simple lens elements, and concentric rings appropriately assembled on a flat surface to provide short focal lengths. Methods of designing Fresnel lenses are easy to process and have excellent optical performance. Fresnel Lenses Theory widely used.

How Are Fresnel Lenses Better than other lenses?

While comparing different lenses, observation reveals that the Fresnel lens is cheaper than any other lens and can be made with a considerable area. The circular section of the Fresnel lens has the same curved surface as the normal lens. But the correspondence present in the normal lens is removed from the Fresnel lens, to make the Fresnel lens flat. The focus point of every ring in the Fresnel lens is the same as the core of the ring in the normal lens. As a result, the Fresnel lens produces the same image as the normal lens created. Most of the area of Fresnel lenses can be made appropriately by plastic.

Uses and Advantages of Fresnel Lenses

Light Gathering Applications

Fresnel lenses are mostly useful for light gathering applications, emitter or detector setups, and condenser systems. Fresnel lenses are useful as image formulation, projection, or magnifier lenses in the illumination system. It is helpful for searchlights and lighthouses to concentrate light I relatively narrow beams. Because of the thickness and weight, large scale beacon lenses of solid glass are almost impossible to manufacture. The lightest Fresnel lenses usually polished and assembled from the appropriate glass.

Home Maintenance and Photovoltaic Cells

One of the most common uses of Fresnel lenses is the collection of Sunlight. Concentration with these lenses is ideal on the heating surface and photovoltaic cells. For instance, Fresnel lenses are used for home maintenance, such as pool and home heating, depending on the amount of collected light. Collection of light is common in all solar applications, but the Fresnel lenses are cheaper, thinner, and lightweight than others, so they are more suitable. Fresnel lenses are unique optical lenses, making it an ideal tool for providing a variety of optical designs.

fresnel-lenses-and its uses

Useful in Light Houses

Modern Fresnel lenses consist of refractive elements. Many of the lighthouses have both reflecting and refracting elements. The inner components are the sections of refraction, and the outer elements of sections are reflections. Because of the reflection of the silvered mirror, the internal reflection is useful for avoiding the light loss.

Cheaper in cost and lighter in weight

Fresnel lenses have many advantages, like reducing the lens thickness and reduce the material cost; similarly, the weight reduction results in less assembling and mounting expenses. High aperture lenses give high-value design freedom, and large diameter lenses (up to 50 “) can be replaceable with expensive conventional mirrors. Fresnel Lenses Theory widely used.

Useful in Overhead Projectors

Fresnel lenses are most useful at a specific distance, and when they are mostly aspheric. Every overhead projector (OHP) uses a large Fresnel lens to focus the light rays from a substage to collect the light through the flashed transparency. The Fresnel lens gives the same light on all areas, and the transparency directly sits on the Fresnel lens.


For magnification purposes

 Fresnel lenses can use anywhere that a large area shaft of insensitive quality is required, while the small size of the plastic, Fresnel lenses magnifies the area for reading the fine print, and they are much lighter than other kinds of the glass lens.

For the lighting system in TVs and Cameras

Fresnel lenses are of great use in lighthouses where no other optics give excellent performance. So, fresnel lenses have many applications like usage in traffic lights and TVs, photography with a compact camera, lightweight, and hand-held magnifier lenses. Fresnel Lenses Theory widely used.

For Making Good Quality Glasses

 It is also useful in glasses, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane commonly used to correct strabismus, eye condition, work as a high power lens. Also used for children with severe eye problems, because of lightweight it is suitable for children and adults. It can capture more light from the light source, and allow the light from the lighthouse over the greater distance. Fresnel Lenses Theory widely used.

Hindu Temple in Islamabad

Construction Starts At First Hindu Temple in Islamabad

Popular government is in the blood of the Muslims, who view total fairness of humanity, and trust in brotherhood, uniformity, and freedom”

― Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Soon after the one year of freedom. The miserable death of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. Began the ceaseless discussion with respect to the ideological personality of the recently settled nation. Curiously, the two sides quote his addresses on the side of their place of perspectives. First Hindu temple started in Islamabad.

The fundamental thought process of the making of Pakistan based on brilliant estimations of resistance, balance, and harmony, was, no uncertainty, to frame a free state where Muslims in larger part might run the nation undertakings. Without going into the discussion of a common state or Islamic framework. I might want to express that Quaid-e-Azam. Had an unmistakable and positive methodology towards the non-Muslims residents of the recently conceived state. Quaid-e-Azam and his allies in the Pakistan development needed to give equivalent rights. And chances to all the networks living in Muslim larger part populace with the goal that everybody could strive. To etch Pakistan’s name as an extraordinary country on the world guide.

In the wake of chosen as first Governor-General of Pakistan on 11 August 1947, Quaid-e-Azam while tending to Constituent Assembly to characterize the state strategy. He said in clear words that “You may have a place with any religion or standing or doctrine — that has nothing to do with the matter of the State.” He pronounced that being Pakistani residents, all are equivalent and one country. First Hindu temple started in Islamabad.

Quaid’s Quote

Prior to finishing up his discourse, Quaid-e-Azam likewise attempted to persuade the non-Muslim inhabitants of Pakistan for not moving and make Pakistan their country. You are free; you are allowed to go to your sanctuaries, you are allowed to go to your mosques or to some other spots of love in this State of Pakistan. And you may have a place with any religion or rank or doctrine — that has nothing to do with the matter of the State,” he expressed.F

First Hindu Temple In Islamabad

A basic service held to begin the development of the principal Hindu sanctuary in the capital’s H-9 zone on Tuesday.

However, The notable performed by Parliamentary Secretary on Human Rights Lal Chand Malhi.

Talking on the event, Lal Chand said there were a few pre-1947 period sanctuary structures in Islamabad and connecting zones. However, It including one at Saidpur Village and at the slope point neglecting the Korang River close Rawal Lake. Be that as it may, they have been deserted and not utilized.


“Plus, there is no crematorium in Islamabad ” Mr Lal Chand stated. Including the Hindu populace in Islamabad had expanded altogether in two decades, in this way, the sanctuary was essential.

The Islamabad Hindu Panchayat has named the sanctuary of Islamabad as Shri Krishna Mandir.

The 20,000 square feet plot in H-9/2 allocated to Hindu Panchayat by the Capital Development Authority (CDA) in 2017. So, On the sets of the National Commission for Human Rights.

Be that as it may, development work was deferred because of satisfaction of different customs including the endorsement of the site guide and reports from CDA and other applicable specialists.

Senior individuals from Hindu Panchayat Pritam Das, Mahesh Chaudhary, Ashok Kumar, Chaman Lal. And others expressed gratitude toward the Ministry of Religious Affairs for its participation.

Strict Affairs Minister Pir Noorul Haq Qadri. However, Guaranteed the Hindu Panchayat that the administration would bear the expense of the development.Which right now evaluated at Rs100 million. So, first Hindu temple started in Islamabad.

In spite of every single other issue. So, This progression could likewise give a positive message to the Non-Muslims living the nation over.

coronavirus pandemic

20 potential COVID 19 hotspot cities of Pakistan

The COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan is a section of the proceeding pandemic of coronavirus ailment 2019 (COVID-19) caused by using supreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus pandemic two (SARS-CoV-2). The virus used to be demonstrated to have reached Pakistan on 26 February 2020, when a scholar in Karachi examined fantastic upon returning from Iran. By 18 March, instances had been registered in all 4 provinces, the two self-sustaining territories, and the federal territory of Islamabad. There are few COVID 19 hotspot cities in Pakistan.

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As of 15 June 2020, there have been about 144,500 established instances with 53,700 recoveries and 2,730 deaths in the country. Punjab has recorded the most instances at over 54,100, and has additionally suggested the most deaths in the country, a whole of 1,031. The Government was once put underneath a nation-wide lockdown till 9 May, which was once initiated on 1 April and later prolonged twice. Upon its end, the lockdown used to be eased in phases.

On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) demonstrated that a novel coronavirus pandemic was once the reason for a respiratory sickness in a cluster of humans in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which was once said to the WHO on 31 December 2019.

February 2020

On 26 February, Pakistan confirmed its first two cases of the coronavirus. Within every week of the primary two cases, Pakistan confirmed three more cases, including a case in Pakistan’s capital, Islamabad and also in Rawalpindi, Punjab

March 2020

The fifth case was also report, on 2 March, from the federal area of the country.

On 8 March, Pakistan confirmed its seventh case of COVID-19, also in Karachi. On 11 March, 76 suspected cases were reporting in several districts of Punjab province, including Lahore, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Hafiz Abad, and Lodhran.

By 14 March, the amount of cases was 31 as two new patients found positive in Karachi while one reported in Islamabad. By 18 March, the primary case of coronavirus pandemic reported from Azad Kashmir.

On 20 March, the primary death reported in Sindh. On 22 March, the third death in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa announced. The primary death in Gilgit-Baltistan and Baluchistan also announced thereon day, meaning that the amount of deaths increased to six.

On 23 March, many doctors across the state complained about the shortage of proper equipment for battling the virus. On 24 March, Sindh and Baluchistan observed lockdown until 7 April, while Azad Kashmir went thereunder until 13 April respectively. Punjab also imposed a lockdown on 24 March, but only until 6 April. In Sindh, the local police detained 472 people in various districts of the province an equivalent day in violation of the lockdown. Therefore, 222 of them in Karachi alone and a complete of 72 FIRs registered on 24 March.

The cases pertained to hoarding and profiteering of safety masks and hand sanitizers, large gatherings, opening shops and restaurants, and traveling in passenger buses. As a result, on 25 March, several restrictions imposed within the capital territory of Islamabad.

On 31 March, 82 total recoveries announced, also because of the 26th death within the country. 174 new cases tested positive, meaning that the entire number of positive cases had increased to 2,039

April 2020

On 1 April, 252 new cases confirmed, bringing the entire number of cases to 2291, while the entire number of recoveries within the country surpassed 100. The number of confirmed cases crossed 3,000 round the nation on 5 April. The federal selected 14 April to increase the continued lockdown for 2 more weeks until 30 April. On 15 April, the national death tally surpassed 100 and therefore the number of cases crossed 6000. On 16 April, the report came that 58% of the cases had been locally transmitted in Pakistan.

May 2020

By 7 May, COVID-19 had infected quite 500 Pakistani healthcare workers. Therefore on 9 May, the lockdown led to Pakistan. On 18 May, 16 new fatalities recorded in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, bringing the price to 334 within the province. On 29 May, it announced that 900 children under the age of 10 had tested positive in Sindh.

June 2020:

In early June, after testing began to select up once more, case numbers rose very rapidly, after levels of latest cases in 24 hours broke 3,000 on May 31, Jefferson Davis’ Birthday the primary day during which quite 4,000 people tested positive for COVID-19. The ratio of positive cases to tests also increased, hovering around 20 – 25% within the first few days of June.

Parts of Islamabad and Peshawar sealed with major areas of Lahore set to travel under lockdown from midnight tonight.

Moreover, areas identified in Swat include Bahrain, Matta, Babuzai, Kabul, Barikot, Khariri and Gwalerai.

Other tehsils identified by the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Health Department include UC Qambar, Saeedoshareef, Breekot Gharbi, Quetta Sharki, Kozabandi, and Madin.

More than 489 people infected in these areas, the provincial health department said.

In Peshawar, the four areas identified as coronavirus pandemic hotspots sealed with both outgoing and incoming ways sealed. Lockdown imposed in Ahsrafia Colony, Channa Road, Danishabad, and Hayatabad in Phase 1/Sector E-1.

Police deployed within the areas with markets apart from grocery stores and medical stores.

Similarly, in Sindh’s Ghotki, four areas sealed and section 188 imposed after it identified together of the areas.

“A total of 20 cities across Pakistan identified as having likely increase in ratio/speed of infection which needs restrictive measures for containment,” a handout by the NCOC had said on Monday.

Pakistan has reported over 148,000 cases and quite 2,800 deaths thus far from the novel coronavirus.

Punjab Govt imposes complete lockdown in some areas of Lahore

Addressing a press conference on Monday. Provincial Health Minister Yasmin Rashid announce that a complete lockdown will be imposed in some areas of Lahore. As a result of rising coronavirus pandemic cases reported in the provincial capital.

“Many areas of Lahore are going to be pack up 12am onwards from tomorrow (Tuesday),” said the minister. However, She added that the areas which will experience an entire lockdown include Shahdra, Shad Bagh, Mazang, Harbanspura, Old Lahore, Nishtar Ground, and Cantt.

Meanwhile, some areas in Gulberg will close completely and a few societies in Lahore’s Iqbal Town also.

“Food stores and pharmacies will remain open in these areas,” clarified the minister, adding that the areas will undergo an entire lockdown for a minimum of fortnight. Further she added that these areas will reopen after the situation comes under control.

In Punjab, Lahore is the worst affected city with reporting over 27,000 cases.

Five towns identified in Karachi as ‘COVID 19 hotspot’

Separately, in a letter to Deputy Commissioner Karachi West, District Health Officer (DHO) Dr Shafique Ahmad identified 16 union councils in Karachi’s West where smart lockdown should imposed.

  • Towns include Gadao, Baldia, Kemari, SITE and Orangi.
  • Areas identified include, UC-5 Songal which incorporates Gulshan Maymar, Khuda ki Basti. UC-6 Maymarabad which includes Surjani sector – L1,5C,5D,4B,4C,7A.
  • In Kemari, UC-1 Bhutta Village which includes Saeedabad Masjid Road and Umer Khan Road, UC-2 Sultanabad which includes the Habib Public School street and UC-3 Kemari which includes Docks and Majeed Colony.
  • In Baldi, UC-3 Islama Nagar which incorporates Naval Colony, UC-4 Naiabadi which incorporates sectors 4C and 8B, UC-5 Saeedabad which incorporates Area 5G, 5J and A3.UC-6 Muslim Mujahid which incorporates Afridi Colony and UC-7 which incorporates Mujahir Camp and Kokan Colony.
  • In SITE, UC-4 Metroville’s entire area got identified as a hotspot while UC-6 Frontier Colony’s sectors 4 and 5 got included. UC-7 Banaras, Islamia and Subhani Muhalla have been identified.
  • In Orangi, UC-6 Ghaziabad’s Christian Colony, UC-11 Data Nagar’s area 7A/B sector 8 and UC-12 Mujahid Colony’s Millatabad, Gulfamaad Aligarh Colony identified as coronavirus hotspots.

The following 20 cities identified by the NCOC for the enforcement of “necessary restrictive measures”

  • Karachi
  • Lahore
  • Quetta
  • Peshawar
  • Rawalpindi
  • Islamabad
  • Faisalabad
  • Multan
  • Gujranawala
  • Swat
  • Hyderabad
  • Sukkur
  • Sialkot
  • Gujarat
  • Ghotki
  • Larkana
  • Khairpur
  • Dera Ghazi Khan
  • Malakand
  • Mardan

The NCOC’s strategy of TTQ formulated to stay the spread of the novel coronavirus in restraint as different sectors of the economy allowed to reopen.

Punjab govt to impose lockdown in certain areas of Lahore

Punjab’s Health Minister Dr Yasmin Rashid, meanwhile, on Monday announce that the provincial government are going to impose a two-week lockdown in certain areas of Lahore from midnight tomorrow.

These areas are located in:

  • Shahdra
  • Nistar Ground
  • Allama Iqbal Town
  • Lahore Cantt
  • Walled City
  • Mozang
  • Shad Bagh
  • Harbanspura
  • Gulberg

Last week, the planet Health Organisation (WHO) expressed concern over the hasty lifting of restrictions during a letter written to the Punjab health minister, stating that Pakistan didn’t meet any of the prerequisites for opening of the lockdown.

It also alerted Pakistan to its high positivity rate, underlining seriousness of the COVID-19 situation and poor efforts of the govt during this regard.

As a technique to assist contain the huge transmission of coronavirus pandemic, the WHO recommended the provinces to impose a two-week lockdown. “WHO strongly recommends the 2 weeks off and a fortnight on strategy because it offers the littlest curve,” the letter said.

Fashion Trend for Summer

Fashion Trend for Summer

Pakistan’s fashion industry is not fleeting; in fact, it is progressing rapidly. In this modern age, to be
glint up in style is the new fashion statement for people. To remain in limelight and flair, we
always look up to new fashion trends. As the fashion industry is evolving rapidly, so the new
modifications are adding in people’s wear. For every trend in Pakistan, we look up to the
celebrities, Instagram bloggers/ influencers, whether it is in bridal wear or casual dress. The
options on it vary from expensive to cheap ones which people can buy. here is the fashion trend for summer.

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The fashion trend for summer which will be followed in 2020

Long Kurtis

Long Kurtis

This year a lovely ankle long Kurti paired with cigarette pant or palazzo is in trend, which didn’t
disappoint us. This look makes you elegant. Although it is not new in fashion trends yet remains a craze for ladies.

Medium Kurtis

Medium Kurtis

Parallel to long Kurtis medium shirts with cigarette pants is the new trend. The bold colors are
in trend which is eye-catching. For casual wears, digital prints are in trend, and printed
suits and shirts are also trending which gives a basic look.

Statement Dupatta

Statement Dupatta

This year dupattas are in again for the past year it was out from the closet specially with long
shirts but now it is the new trend. Many designers have shown their love for this fashion

Khussa in style

Khussa in style

Khussa will never go out of style. It can be used to enhance your overall look whether you go
for Eastern wear or western wear, it will surely be a fashionable stroke.


Pastels are a huge hit from 2019 and a wonderful choice for making a lovely looked. It can be
matched with other pastels or other neutral hues. From a young girl to a classy lady, it is a b
pick whether for casual, formal, or bridal wear. This trend will never go out of style in the future.


This style is an addition in your wardrobe, whether it is spring or summer; it is an
exquisite addition to your closet. From your lawn Kurti to skirts or bridal wear it is
going to enlighten your wardrobe

Evolutionary History of Fashion in Pakistan

Evolutionary History of Fashion in Pakistan

From Peshawar to Gilgit-Baltistan to Kashmir to Punjab, Sindh, and Balochistan, the assorted variety of language, scenes and culture are wealthy in Pakistan. Like Fashion in Pakistan culture and scenes is its design. Overflowing with hues, textures, weaving, trims, cuts, and obviously, boundless style.

In spite of having a moderate society, Pakistan has never been without style since its origin. Each period brought its own interesting styles and plans fit for that time both for ladies and men.

Yet, this style and plans have just spun around the customary dress. Shalwar kameez with dupatta for ladies and just shalwar kameez for men. Style fashioners need more space to make numerous varieties with the regular pair of shalwar kameez. So the confinement is that they need to keep to a specific garment structure and profile for the client’s taste.

As you move to start with one territory then onto the next. The idea of shalwar kameez is the equivalent however with certain varieties included their conventional dress. Each area has their customary garments which adds to their intrigue. Despite the fact that Pakistani dresses have advanced and turn out to be more standard. Individuals despite everything have their social dresses since they have become a curiosity just as periodic wear.

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The appropriate response was straightforward, “instant” shalwar kameez (National outfit of Pakistan) wasn’t promptly accessible. I at that point found the guardian of a creator, pret-wear dress in Pakistan; Tanweer Jamshed. His image was design “TeeJays”


Social History:

Pakistan has a rich social and customary foundation returning to Indus Valley Civilization, 2800 BC–1800 BC. The locale of Pakistan has attacked previously. Many involved and settled by a wide range of individuals, including Dravidians, Aryans, Greeks, White Huns, Persians, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and different Eurasian gatherings. There are contrasts in culture among the distinctive ethnic gatherings in issues. For example, dress, food, and religion, particularly where pre-Islamic traditions vary from Islamic practices. The essential inception of Pakistanis anyway originates from the human advancements of North India and eastern Afghanistan, with noteworthy impacts from Persia, Turkestan, and Hellenistic Greece.


Pakistani writing, that is, the writing of Pakistan, as a particular writing appeared when Pakistan picked up its nationhood as a sovereign state in 1947. Over some undefined time frame, an assemblage of writing interesting to Pakistan has risen in about every significant Pakistani dialects, including Urdu, English, Punjabi, Pushto and Sindhi.


The Urdu language has a rich custom of verse flaunting such prestigious writers as Mirza Ghalib, Allama Iqbal who is the national artist of Pakistan) and Faiz Ahmad Faiz. Persian verse, English verse, Punjabi verse and Kashmiri verse have all consolidated and have impacted the various types of verse in the locale.


Music ranges from customary styles, (for example, Qawwali) to progressively current structures that attempt to combine conventional Pakistani music with western music. A well-known Pakistani performer, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan was globally famous for making a type of music which synchronized Qawwali with western music. Well known types of music additionally win, the most outstanding being Film music and Urdu Pop music.


Chand Raat, after an Islamic month of fasting, Ramadan, simply the prior night Eid comes, everybody prepares for Eid. Young ladies put henna on their hands. Individuals go out for the very late looking for blessings and desserts that will given to loved ones. Indeed, even outside at the shopping centers and the squares, there are numerous brilliant lights. There are huge groups in the downtown area to commend the start of Eid


One of the most natural sights in fashion in Pakistan is that generally, Pakistani men wear Shalwar Qameez. They come in a wide range of styles, textures, hues, and examples that make them look extremely in vogue. Pakistani ladies likewise wear Shalwar Qameez; however, the plans contrast.


Urdu is the main authority language of Pakistan. English is the most widely used language of the Pakistani first-class and the greater part of the administration services. Urdu is firmly identified with Hindi yet is written in all-encompassing Arabic letters in order as opposed to in Devanagari. Numerous different dialects are spoken in Pakistan, including Punjabi, Siraiki, Sindhi, Pashto, Balochi, Hindko, Brahui, Burushaski, Balti, Khawar, Gujrati and different dialects with littler quantities of speakers. Arabic and Persian are still educated as old-style dialects though too few understudies. Now language is consider as fashion in Pakistan.

Eid Celebrations

The two Eids, Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha recognize the death of the period of fasting, Ramadan, and the readiness of Prophet Ibrahim to forfeit his child Prophet Ishmael for Allah. During nowadays there are national occasions and numerous celebrations and occasions occur to observe Eid.

Eid Celebrations

There are brands that have begun to pay attention to the retail of style adornments and making it one stride further. Names like Tesoro has certainly empowered clients to receive rewards of premium quality style adornments and other ladies frill. Its brands like these that have advised ladies that there is a whole other world to design than garments. Ladies can make distinction by adorning. These extras can exhibit your character. Regardless of whether through lively sacks or crazy adornments, you can be as bold and brave as you need!

With the rise of online stores all around, the shopping experience has been made simple for clients. Ladies’ web-based shopping brands have made design extras and apparel available to a huge number of individuals. Improved interchanges and web innovation has empowered style houses to develop and investigate new skylines to catch a mass market. Pakistan’s design industry has gradually developed and improved monstrously as the years progressed. Regardless of political and monetary difficulties looked by the nation, this industry has relentlessly stepped forward to make a conspicuous imprint. With a drawn-out stable political and financial stage, fashion in the Pakistan design industry can ascend to statures that have not comprehended previously.

sushant singh rajput commits suicide

Sushant Singh Rajput- Bollywood actor commits suicide

Bollywood star Sushant Singh Rajput has reportedly committed suicide. Young Bollywood actor was found dead in his apartment. Everyone is shocked with this tragic news. He commits suicide by hanging at his Bandra residence.

The man Who inspired and Taught youngsters how to live Life has Departed. He was a role model for youth.

gone to look soon deeply disheartened if he was sad or sinking in some terrible situation must have opened up n talked to someone but really not have taken this extreme damn step.

People have started sharing their thoughts and condolences about sushant singh rajput

We will never know who is going through what in their personal life. Always be kind.

SHOCKING and deeply disturbing. Heartfelt Condolences to Sushants family and friends

hope he finds peace on the other side.

Obviously should be debts. How much glittering stars’

lives look from outside that much dark

and gothic are their lives inside!


Sushant born on 21 January 1986 and lived till 14 June 2020. He was a dancer, actor, enterprnure and run welfare. He first appeared in TV series. Sushant worked in a drama named Kis desh main maira dil. This serial aired in 2008. Later he won Zee award for his role in Pavitar rishta. Pavitar rishta played between 2009 and 2011. Later he acted in his first ever film. He acted in his first film named Koi Po Che in 2013. Later on he never stopped and continued his amazing career. Rajput’s most popular film named MS Dhoni the untold story. This film released in 2016. He worked in famous named PK. PK broke many records. This film became famous all over the world. On 14 June 2020, Sushant reportedly died due to suicide. Bollywood has lost a true gentleman actor and person. He will be remembered.

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modern jewelry trend in pakistan 2020

Modern Jewelry trends in Pakistan 2020

Jewelry has its own significance which can not be ignored on events especially like wedding. It is the first thing that is noticed. The concept of jewelry came in 1500-1600 BC by the Greeks. At that time the teeth and shells of the animals were used for the ornamentation. The women from every Era loved Jewelry of different kinds and design. The fashion trend is a thing which is increasing since decades. This trend is flourishing in Pakistan rapidly. The bridal jewelry in Pakistan is in the form of gold, silver and diamond. The bridal jewelry trend in Pakistan has always been related to our culture. When we think of bridal jewelry in Pakistan gold has always preferred which is embellished with gemstones. Modern Jewelry trends in Pakistan discussed.

Modern Jewelry trends in Pakistan.

Bridal jewelry trend in 2020

There is a bare possibility when you look into the markets for bridal jewelry the top notch thing you notice, not only gold in the market there can seen variety of pearls, kundans, Hyderabad styled necklaces and a combination of antique and modern designs. However, the gold, silver and platinum gems usually preferred among the ladies and simulated adornments liked at the waleema day.

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Statement jewelry:

As the gowns are in trend so the best pick with them is statement jewelry. Because, it is unique and fortify your personality and gives a bold look. Therefore, modern jewelry makes the trend better

Vintage jewelry:

Many designs, not just her dressing but her appearance also inspired by the past and design and trend. This Jewelry makes you graceful and elegant even if you have less interest in ancient jewelry.

a collection of vintage jewelry

Hairdo jewelry:

Decorating the parting in your hairstyle, a trend highlighted with pearls, crystals and diamond. It is completely eye catching. The tiaras and jewelry inspired from the nature add beauty to the Hairdo. It adds delicacy and makes your look ravishing. So, modern Jewelry trends in Pakistan.

Hairdo Jewelry

Floral designed jewelry:

The floral designed jewelry presents a refreshing look for every woman. The floral designed jewelry inspired by nature is also a thing for many brides these days.

Moonstone jewelry trend:

The Moonstone jewelry is is the kind of piece that gives a very stylish look. It has shine and luster which comes in a variety of colors and gives a decent look. It is highly demanding these days.

Modern Jewelry trends in Pakistan.

Advantages of using Chlorine Gas for Disinfecting Water

Advantages of using Chlorine Gas for Disinfecting Water

In the 13th century, a chemist in Sweden named Carl Wilhelm Scheele prepared pure chlorine gas for the first time. He prepared the chlorine gas (Cl2) by simply heating manganese dioxide (MnO2) with hydrochloric acid (HCl). Sir Humphry Davy, in 1810 did some reactions of the chlorine and found that chlorine is an element as this gas cannot be separated. Based on the color of the gas that is yellowish-green, Davy named it chlorine derived from the Greek word “chloros” means yellow-greenish. Chlorine is present in the form of compounds everywhere, as it is very reactive. Usually, it combines with sodium, forming sodium chloride (table salt) that occurs as rock salt in the earth’s crust. Advantages of using chlorine gas discussed.

Properties of Chlorine

Chlorine is a very reactive element and quickly binds with other elements. The reaction property of the chlorine is just like other halogen elements as the halogens react with the metal to form the salt. So, in the periodic table, it is placed in the column of halogens (fluorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. Each atom of chlorine contains 17 electrons moving around the nucleus within three shells. According to the rule, the innermost shell consists of 2 electrons.

The next contains 8 electrons, and the last shells contain 7 electrons. The outer shell has one electron less for making it stable, and thus the charge on chlorine is -1. For becoming stable, it makes a covalent bond with other chlorine atoms, thus making Cl2 or with any other element. Depending on the element with which it combines, it can make the most reactive substance like hydrochloric acid or most stable substance like sodium chloride (salt).

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Advantages of using chlorine gas discussed.

Uses of Chlorine

Chlorine has a significant role in the field of science. It is used as a component in many medicines. A large number of drugs that we use contain chlorine or made by the help of by-products that contain chlorine. It naturally occurs in the herbs that are useful for medical purposes. Chloroform (CHCl3) also contains chlorine, that is the medicine that is used for anesthesia purpose during surgery. In the chemical industry, there is also a high usage of chlorine. There are thousands of products manufactured in chemical industries that contain chlorine in them. Few products that contain chlorine are paints, anti-freezing agents, pesticides, and PVCs. A large amount of chlorine is used in papermaking that is the most popular product.

The invention of Water Chlorination

In 1990’s Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Pan American Health Organization developed a system named Safe Water System. The development of the Safe Water System was due to the spread of cholera in Southern America. The treatment involves chlorination of water with dilute sodium chloride solution. The people were guided through adding one bottle cap of sodium hypochlorite solution in clean water filled in a sizeable standard-size container. Use this water for drinking purposes after 30 minutes to kill all the microorganisms.

Advantages of using chlorine gas discussed.

Chlorine as a disinfecting Agent

The concept of using disinfectants for health care purposes started in the 19th century when, for the first time, Luis Pasteur discovered that microorganisms cause many diseases and infections. Chlorine widely used as a disinfecting age all over the world. It deactivates the activity of pathogenic microorganisms. Before the discovery of chlorine, no one knows that the cause of the diseases are microorganisms. Chlorine deactivates the microbes and pathogens that are present in drinking water, swimming pools, and wastewater. Chlorine generally used for disinfecting houses and hospitals area for health care purposes. Dr. Oliver Wendel Holmes, in 1835 first time started the process that the midwives after the childbirth will wash their hands with hypochlorite to avoid midwives fever. Chlorine thus has a significant role in increasing the humans’ expected life period.

Advantages of using chlorine gas discussed.

Water Purification through Chlorination

During the water treatment process, chlorination can be done at any time. At every point of chlorination, chlorine removes different contaminants. Pre-chlorination a process in which the chlorine applied to the water just as the water entered the treatment facility. This first chlorine used directly to the raw water for removing algae and other aquatic organisms, so they will be removed from passing into the next stages. At the stage of pre-chlorination, the color and smell of the water removed, stop the organism’s growth in water.

Iron and manganese oxidized in the presence of chlorine and thus removed during sedimentation and filtering stages. Chlorination also done in the last stage of the water treatment process. At this stage, the chlorine added to disinfect the water and maintain the chlorine remain in the water so they can move to the distribution system. The chlorinated water is cheaper than any other water purification technique. The chlorination process requires less concentration of chlorine and less time to purify the water. For supporting the presence of chlorine residual in the distribution unit, the re-chlorination of water usually done. The re-chlorination process maintains the chlorine during the whole system of distribution.


Advantages of using chlorine gas discussed.

Increase in population and water demand

With the increase in population, the water demand has also increased. To cope with this water demand, recycling wastewater is becoming a necessity. Wastewater treatment plants work in the same as water purification plants. The most crucial process activated sludge process is to remove the organic waste. The chlorine required for wastewater treatment is in more meaningful content than the quantity of chlorine used for portable water purification. The number of pathogens and organic waste is higher in the wastewater; therefore, proper water purification plant design and proper operations required to make the purification very useful.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in the standard drinking water, 2 to 3 milligrams of chlorine is necessary for satisfying disinfection. The maximum level of the chlorine that can be used for the disinfection process is up to 5 milligrams per liter. Exceeding 5 milligrams becomes harmful, so in case more effective disinfection required, add the amount of free chlorine after 30 minutes at the pH below 8. Chlorine widely used as a disinfectant in almost all countries because of its low cost and disinfecting properties.

global warming and CO2 emission


Global warming and CO2 emission are serious issues. The gases present in the atmosphere acts as the blockage to the escaping infrared radiations. These radiations capturing gases can change the climate system. The atmospheric gases that capture radiations include; carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and water vapors (H2O) mainly. In 1859, British scientist named Joseph Tyndall called these gases “greenhouse gases”. The greenhouse gases prevent the escape of harmful radiations that heat the earth surface. The heating process of earth is called global warming. The global warming results in the melting of glaciers, increase in rainfall, and increase in acidification level.

Climate Warming During Cretaceous

According to geological time scale variations in the amount of atmospheric CO2 is the root cause of climate change. On a geological timescale, the carbon cycle regulates the atmospheric CO2 from more than the last 106 years. The carbon cycle is caused by geological processes. Processes like weathering of silicates, precipitation of carbonate rocks, mantle degassing, and many others. During Phanerozoic, the era, the period of middle to late Cretaceous is known as the warmest period.

global warming and polar bear
High resolution digital image depicting a single, sad, dirty polar bear, floating on a dwindling chunk of ice, in the center of vast ocean garbage patch. Image is intended to illustrate themes like environmental degredation, ocean pollution, habitat loss, global warming, and climate change in general.

The global temperature at that time was 60C greater than today. Anoxic oceans that are warmer supported the burial of organic carbon, with no polar ice in that period due to extremely high temperatures. In the Cretaceous period, the phenomenon of seafloor spreading was occurring globally. The rate of seafloor spreading at that time was twice as compared to today. In the middle Cretaceous period, oceanic basalts were produced due to the fast movement of continents and the ocean floor widening. This continent and ocean pattern is the primary reason for climate change in the Cretaceous time.

Thus, it is proved that the warm climate at the time of Cretaceous is due to the tectonic forces. That caused active metamorphism processes, volcanism and mantle degassing maintaining the CO2 level.

Global warming and CO2 emission are serious issues.

Tectonic plates

Plate tectonics of Cretaceous played a vital role in the creation and modification of oceanic gateways and seaways. The African plate rotated in east direction, translated away from South America, enlarging the connection between North and South Atlantic Ocean. The anti-clockwise movement of Iberia connected North Atlantic with Tethys sea, due to which the Betic seaways deepened and opened the pathways through Bays of Biscay. During the late Cretaceous, the connection between the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic ocean closed in the north. All these paleogeographic modifications strongly impacted global oceanic circulations for a time scale of millions of years. The middle Cretaceous period shows the significant changes in Tethys-Atlantic oceanography that provided the new way in evolving global Oceanic systems. These changes occur as the climate becomes warm in mid-Cretaceous. And the reason for raising the temperature in Cretaceous time is due to the Plate-tectonic configuration.


Green House Gas Emission Promoting Global Warming

A few years back, most people deny the concept of global warming and consider this topic prediction or just the fears that will never happen. The scenario changed suddenly when the year 2018 was the hottest.  As the whole World is familiar that with the increase in industrialism, the rate of CO2 release in the atmosphere is very high, this results in instability in climate all around the World. The consumption of these harmful gases causes a rise in global temperature. Globally, the storms become more robust; the period of droughts extended the ice sheets become thin, Glaciers melt at a higher pace than predicted.


Methane is one of the most hostile greenhouse gases that is destroying our atmosphere. Carbon dioxide gas is a non-poisonous, fragrance-free, and colorless gas. It usually generates by the burning of fossil fuel and during cement manufacturing. The property of carbon dioxide gas is to absorb radiation and do not let the heat escape from the atmosphere of the earth. This heat blockage results rise in heat in the atmosphere and depletion of the ozone layer. This trapped heat disrupts the patterns of weather. In 1956, David Keeling from Scripps Institute of Oceanography started measuring the samples from different locations, and the result shows that there is a 2 ppm/yr. An increase in CO2 is the result of human activities. Global warming and CO2 emission are serious issues.

Proof of climate change

This long-term CO2 is reliable for 100 and even more years, and this is the best proof of climate change.  Change in weather and rise of temperature about 2% in total, can cause the extinction of about 30% species. The rise in temperature due to greenhouse gas emissions has seen (Figure 1). As the whole World is familiar that with the increase in industrialism, the rate of CO2 release in the atmosphere is very high, this results in instability in climate all around the World. Climate change is a global matter that everyone is facing, and the consequences will affect the whole population of the World. So, all the countries of the World must adopt some measures in controlling greenhouse gas emissions.

Two main strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions discuss in the present research; one is the adoption of the carbon tax method, and second is setting the goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions each year.


Coronavirus – Nature’s Message

Despite many drawbacks of Coronavirus, there are some positive impacts also that we are ignoring.  On one side, people are considering it a curse of God, but if we observe this pandemic’s positivity, we can call it the “Nature’s Message,” as said by the United Nations environment chief. Climate change remained the hottest issue in the United Nations for the past few years, as it became a global issue. Representatives of different countries united on the United Nations platform to solve the problem of climate change.

Global warming and CO2 emission are serious issues.

But there was no significant change as industrialism is at its peak in this era, and it is difficult to stop as we are entirely dependent on our industries for everything. But the Coronavirus is successful in the reduction of CO2 emission as the whole World locked down. All the industries and transport systems shut down these days to avoid the epidemic spread. This shutdown stopped the fossil fuel burning worldwide, causing a temporary drop in CO2 emission.

Drop-in Air Pollution due to lock down

There is a clear drop in the air pollution in atmosphere due to present situation. As the pandemic spread started from the Wuhan city of China, the city completely locked down. As a result of this lockdown the public activities completely banned, limiting the people to their homes. NASA did an experiment on the air of China, to check the pollution rate. According to their observation there was a considerable drop in air pollution in China after the spread of coronavirus. Fri Liu, one of the researchers at NAS states in the magazine that “This is for the first time I have seen such a dramatic drop over such a wide area for a specific event”.

Not only in China but also in other cities there is a clear drop in the air pollution. In Spain, there is a drop of 14% traffic this year, this drop-in traffic decreases the air pollution. According to the research of Stanford University named Marshall Burke, the quality of air in China enhanced. The decrease in air pollution saved the lives of many children under 5 years age and old people of more than 70 years age. And an estimate revealed that this decrease in air pollution saved the lives twenty times more than the deaths due to coronavirus.

Global warming and CO2 emission are serious issues.

Reduced Emission of Green House Gases

During the recession of 2007 to 2009, the rate of CO2 emission reduced but after that year the CO2 emission doubled. The increase in CO2 emission after the great recession was due to increased burning of fossil fuel to cope with energy demand. In the present situation many industries shutdown due to which the CO2 emission has reduced. Oil demand has fallen worldwide because oil is not in use these days. World oil prices dropped below zero due to which many countries shut down their oil wells. Such drop decreases the rate of fossil fuel burning and, as a result, reduced the price of CO2 emission. The European countries where the traffic increased in recent years might also be a drop-in carbon dioxide emission as governments ordered lockdown these days.

The positive impact on our atmosphere is not just for these days. As the Simon Evans of Carbon Brief said, “Obviously there are almost certainly going to be further impacts on emissions. ” Still, it will be more protracted and more beneficial. This pandemic conveys us the message that we can control environmental pollution. If we start taking it sincerely and avoid fossil fuel burning at such a high pace.

Freelancing: A New Dimension towards Prosperity

Freelancing: A New Dimension towards Prosperity

Majority of us must have heard the term several times circulating on Social Media. With mostly known title lines “Earn Online At Home “, but few of us take interest in such things. Rather we consider it some type of scams or time-wasting thing. The reason behind this kind of attitude towards such resplendent opportunity is the dearth of knowledge. This short article will be really helpful in knowing all about freelancing.


So basically, what is freelancing? Freelancing is a kind of self-employment in which a person is not officially committed to any specific organization or an employer. A freelancer works on contract bases with different companies rather than becoming a company employee, so he is ultimately self-employed. If you become a freelancer eventually you will be on driving seat being responsible in deciding your workplace, working hours, billing clients and even deciding which client you want to work for.

In addition, freelancing is free of taxes and a fixed amount of pay. The more you invest your time the more you will earn money. You don’t need to prepare yourself for the work and not to travel to the worksite. As you have to do when you are a company employee. So, summing up the importance, I would say freelancing is the kind of job which is going to give the control of your life in your hand

Scope of freelancing in Pakistan:

Moreover, Pakistan is on the fourth number in the scope of freelancing all over the world. Those who have absolute knowledge about that platform are utilizing themselves even in the current situation of lockdown when all other world businesses have been collapsed due to pandemic. All other developed countries are already enjoying such tremendous opportunities of employment as Upwork recent report shows that 56.7Million Americans freelanced in 2018. So, it is time for developing countries like Pakistan and India to explore such kind of platform as our youth need employment chances. This will help our young generation to become economically independent. Additionally, it helps in polishing basic skills like typing speed, MS Word uses, communication skills, making your time-oriented, connecting globally, and many more to discuss.


How to be a freelancer?

So, let’s come towards the most frequently asked question, “How can we do freelancing?” Most of you don’t know about the process to connect yourself with different platforms of freelancing. There are several international platforms like Fiverr, Upwork, Toptal, Aquent, PeoplePerHour, etc. You just need to visit these websites and make your account with a proper profile description. These platforms are offering a bundle of jobs like content writing, graphic designing, editing and proofreading, marketing and promotions, data entry jobs, online tutoring, social site promotion, logo designing, and thousands more.

So you will describe only those jobs in which you have some expertise. After that, you have to create gigs (mean which services you can provide and how much you will charge of your work). A client places an order to you if he finds you appropriate for his work. At this time you get a chance to enamel your communication skills and convincing power.  What now you need to do is just complete and submit your work on or before the deadline. In return, the client pays you for the work you did. Besides, if he adores your services, he rates your work which helps you in the future to get more orders.

The majority complains of it that we don’t know how to get freelancing jobs. I must say it is not tough in this era of technology when all other countries are reaping benefits of it.

There are a lot of videos on YouTube that can guide you step by step from making an account to placing orders. Now, you just have to come out of your comfort zone and have to search for it. As we all know success takes efforts, hard work, and a lot of time.

General Misconception about freelancing:

Apart from, people have an oblique misapprehension about freelancing and it may be the main reason for which most of us don’t take interest in online earning. That misunderstanding is about swindles and fraud which most of the people face in online jobs. Most of the time clients don’t pay for your work. No doubt, its true but it only happens when some people don’t use the internationally recognized platforms and get entangled in fake websites. Hence, try to figure out the authenticity of the website or organization before you start working for them. Keep on making new resources but the reliable ones.

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Lastly wrapping up my discussion, I must say freelancing is the best opportunity of employment in the present era. You can do it either as your full time or part-time job. It is the best chance for university students to earn themselves along with their studies. Moreover, it will help them to sheen their professional skills even before starting their professional life. There is no age limit for freelancing, if you have the capability you can earn through it. In the present scenario of lockdown, most of the Pakistani youth is just wasting time in useless things. Things like PUBG, TikTok, and many other social media sites like Facebook and Instagram. They should come forward and should make the best use of their golden time by proving their abilities on international platforms of freelancing.