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27 Nov 2020

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GLOBAL WARMING AND CO2 EMISSION
Science

GLOBAL WARMING AND CO2 EMISSION 

Global warming and CO2 emission are serious issues. The gases present in the atmosphere acts as the blockage to the escaping infrared radiations. These radiations capturing gases can change the climate system. The atmospheric gases that capture radiations include; carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and water vapors (H2O) mainly. In 1859, British scientist named Joseph Tyndall called these gases “greenhouse gases”. The greenhouse gases prevent the escape of harmful radiations that heat the earth surface. The heating process of earth is called global warming. The global warming results in the melting of glaciers, increase in rainfall, and increase in acidification level.

Climate Warming During Cretaceous

According to geological time scale variations in the amount of atmospheric CO2 is the root cause of climate change. On a geological timescale, the carbon cycle regulates the atmospheric CO2 from more than the last 106 years. The carbon cycle is caused by geological processes. Processes like weathering of silicates, precipitation of carbonate rocks, mantle degassing, and many others. During Phanerozoic, the era, the period of middle to late Cretaceous is known as the warmest period.

global warming and polar bear
High resolution digital image depicting a single, sad, dirty polar bear, floating on a dwindling chunk of ice, in the center of vast ocean garbage patch. Image is intended to illustrate themes like environmental degredation, ocean pollution, habitat loss, global warming, and climate change in general.

The global temperature at that time was 60C greater than today. Anoxic oceans that are warmer supported the burial of organic carbon, with no polar ice in that period due to extremely high temperatures. In the Cretaceous period, the phenomenon of seafloor spreading was occurring globally. The rate of seafloor spreading at that time was twice as compared to today. In the middle Cretaceous period, oceanic basalts were produced due to the fast movement of continents and the ocean floor widening. This continent and ocean pattern is the primary reason for climate change in the Cretaceous time.

Thus, it is proved that the warm climate at the time of Cretaceous is due to the tectonic forces. That caused active metamorphism processes, volcanism and mantle degassing maintaining the CO2 level.

Global warming and CO2 emission are serious issues.

Tectonic plates

Plate tectonics of Cretaceous played a vital role in the creation and modification of oceanic gateways and seaways. The African plate rotated in east direction, translated away from South America, enlarging the connection between North and South Atlantic Ocean. The anti-clockwise movement of Iberia connected North Atlantic with Tethys sea, due to which the Betic seaways deepened and opened the pathways through Bays of Biscay. During the late Cretaceous, the connection between the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic ocean closed in the north. All these paleogeographic modifications strongly impacted global oceanic circulations for a time scale of millions of years. The middle Cretaceous period shows the significant changes in Tethys-Atlantic oceanography that provided the new way in evolving global Oceanic systems. These changes occur as the climate becomes warm in mid-Cretaceous. And the reason for raising the temperature in Cretaceous time is due to the Plate-tectonic configuration.

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Green House Gas Emission Promoting Global Warming

A few years back, most people deny the concept of global warming and consider this topic prediction or just the fears that will never happen. The scenario changed suddenly when the year 2018 was the hottest.  As the whole World is familiar that with the increase in industrialism, the rate of CO2 release in the atmosphere is very high, this results in instability in climate all around the World. The consumption of these harmful gases causes a rise in global temperature. Globally, the storms become more robust; the period of droughts extended the ice sheets become thin, Glaciers melt at a higher pace than predicted.

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Methane is one of the most hostile greenhouse gases that is destroying our atmosphere. Carbon dioxide gas is a non-poisonous, fragrance-free, and colorless gas. It usually generates by the burning of fossil fuel and during cement manufacturing. The property of carbon dioxide gas is to absorb radiation and do not let the heat escape from the atmosphere of the earth. This heat blockage results rise in heat in the atmosphere and depletion of the ozone layer. This trapped heat disrupts the patterns of weather. In 1956, David Keeling from Scripps Institute of Oceanography started measuring the samples from different locations, and the result shows that there is a 2 ppm/yr. An increase in CO2 is the result of human activities. Global warming and CO2 emission are serious issues.

Proof of climate change

This long-term CO2 is reliable for 100 and even more years, and this is the best proof of climate change.  Change in weather and rise of temperature about 2% in total, can cause the extinction of about 30% species. The rise in temperature due to greenhouse gas emissions has seen (Figure 1). As the whole World is familiar that with the increase in industrialism, the rate of CO2 release in the atmosphere is very high, this results in instability in climate all around the World. Climate change is a global matter that everyone is facing, and the consequences will affect the whole population of the World. So, all the countries of the World must adopt some measures in controlling greenhouse gas emissions.

Two main strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions discuss in the present research; one is the adoption of the carbon tax method, and second is setting the goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions each year.

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Coronavirus – Nature’s Message

Despite many drawbacks of Coronavirus, there are some positive impacts also that we are ignoring.  On one side, people are considering it a curse of God, but if we observe this pandemic’s positivity, we can call it the “Nature’s Message,” as said by the United Nations environment chief. Climate change remained the hottest issue in the United Nations for the past few years, as it became a global issue. Representatives of different countries united on the United Nations platform to solve the problem of climate change.

Global warming and CO2 emission are serious issues.

But there was no significant change as industrialism is at its peak in this era, and it is difficult to stop as we are entirely dependent on our industries for everything. But the Coronavirus is successful in the reduction of CO2 emission as the whole World locked down. All the industries and transport systems shut down these days to avoid the epidemic spread. This shutdown stopped the fossil fuel burning worldwide, causing a temporary drop in CO2 emission.

Drop-in Air Pollution due to lock down

There is a clear drop in the air pollution in atmosphere due to present situation. As the pandemic spread started from the Wuhan city of China, the city completely locked down. As a result of this lockdown the public activities completely banned, limiting the people to their homes. NASA did an experiment on the air of China, to check the pollution rate. According to their observation there was a considerable drop in air pollution in China after the spread of coronavirus. Fri Liu, one of the researchers at NAS states in the magazine that “This is for the first time I have seen such a dramatic drop over such a wide area for a specific event”.

Not only in China but also in other cities there is a clear drop in the air pollution. In Spain, there is a drop of 14% traffic this year, this drop-in traffic decreases the air pollution. According to the research of Stanford University named Marshall Burke, the quality of air in China enhanced. The decrease in air pollution saved the lives of many children under 5 years age and old people of more than 70 years age. And an estimate revealed that this decrease in air pollution saved the lives twenty times more than the deaths due to coronavirus.

Global warming and CO2 emission are serious issues.

Reduced Emission of Green House Gases

During the recession of 2007 to 2009, the rate of CO2 emission reduced but after that year the CO2 emission doubled. The increase in CO2 emission after the great recession was due to increased burning of fossil fuel to cope with energy demand. In the present situation many industries shutdown due to which the CO2 emission has reduced. Oil demand has fallen worldwide because oil is not in use these days. World oil prices dropped below zero due to which many countries shut down their oil wells. Such drop decreases the rate of fossil fuel burning and, as a result, reduced the price of CO2 emission. The European countries where the traffic increased in recent years might also be a drop-in carbon dioxide emission as governments ordered lockdown these days.

The positive impact on our atmosphere is not just for these days. As the Simon Evans of Carbon Brief said, “Obviously there are almost certainly going to be further impacts on emissions. ” Still, it will be more protracted and more beneficial. This pandemic conveys us the message that we can control environmental pollution. If we start taking it sincerely and avoid fossil fuel burning at such a high pace.

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